As Photography is to Painting, so Film is to … Literature?

The title of this slide is an analogy.

When photography was first developed, many (especially painters) people feared it would replace painting. It did not! But photography replaced certain types of painting, and photography split into art photography and representative photography.

What’s the difference between representative photography and non-representative photography?

What does "representation" mean?

Did painting only turn to abstraction after the development of photography?

The “look and feel” of Film Noir is based partially on budget constraints: they were movies that were cheap to film.

Is it art? What did budget and World War II have to do with whether or not the films are art?

Can films that aren't art at the time they were released become art? Or are they only studied as "cultural artifacts"?

Can novels that aren't art at the time they were released become art? Or are they only studied as "cultural artifacts"?

So Film is to … Literature?

When film was first developed, many (especially writers) feared it would replace books. It did not!
When tv was first developed, many (especially filmmakers) feared it would replace movies. It did not!

What’s the difference between film, tv, and books?

Did writing only turn to abstraction / experiment after the development of film? How do you explain the popularity of a writer like Hammet at the same time a writer like James Joyce is writing?

Is any novel-writing art?

Genre: Compare and Contrast: Classification

When we use the term "genre" in Literature and Film Studies, the question 'To what genre does this literary work or film belong?' means, in other words, 'what kind or type of literary work or film is this?'

Genre study then, commences with description and with classification. To place a work within a genre, we must be able to describe the individual film and we must be able to explain the principles on which it can be meaningfully associated with others of its kind


Representation is concerned with the way that people, ideas and events are presented to us through media texts. It is a process of construction, actively constructing meanings about the world and re-presenting them.

In our investigation of texts and other representations it will be useful to ask the questions posed by Richard Dyer when considering representation in popular television:

What sense of the world is it (the media text) making?
What does it claim is typical of the world and what deviant?
Who is really speaking? For Whom?
What does it represent to us and why?


There are various ways of exploring cinematic realism and of investigating the critical debates surrounding it. A useful start may be to divide it into form and content- realism of form and realism of content: films which are realistic in form are arranged sequentially.

Are films "realistic"? What types of novels or stories are realistic? Which types aren't?

Is time treated realistically in a film or book, or are there devices, like flashbacks, voice-over, or montage sequences to move the story along?


"Verisimilitude" means "the appearance of truth." Just because something seems to be true doesn’t necessarily mean that it is true.

Is any photography art?


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