Eight years after California's Legislature adopted a tuition break to help undocumented immigrants afford college, these students account for 1 percent or less of all students in the state's three higher education systems.

The data come as both Republican candidates for governor are calling for the practice to end, saying the cash-strapped state can't afford to let illegal immigrants attend state-supported colleges at resident rates.

The most recent data from the University of California, California State University and the California Community Colleges system show:

• At UC's 10-campus system, undocumented students were no more than three-tenths of a percent of 220,000 students in 2007-2008.

• More than 68 percent of the 1,941 UC students who received the waiver of out-of-state tuition rates were actually U.S. citizens or "documented" immigrants who qualified under the terms of Assembly Bill 540. U.S. citizens and documented students consistently have been the greatest number of UC's AB 540 students, as they are called, since waivers began in 2002.

• In 2007-08, AB 540 students at UC received an estimated $26 million "value" with their tuition waivers. That added up to five-tenths of a percent of UC's "core" state-funded budget of $5.4 billion, said spokesman Ricardo Vasquez.
• At CSU's 23 campuses, 3,633 students are receiving AB 540 waivers in the current school year – less than 1 percent of all 440,000 students. The numbers have increased since the law passed in 2001, when CSU officials told the Legislature they expected about 500 students to take advantage of the waivers.

• In the community college system in the 2008-09 school year, 34,016 students were granted AB 540 waivers – 1 percent of all 2.89 million students.

• CSU and community college records do not identify the status of AB 540 students, but administrators believe the undocumented make up a larger percentage there than at UC.
With support from some Republicans, lawmakers approved AB 540 in 2001.

The California Chamber of Commerce called AB 540 good for the state's economy and work force quality. Supporters also said tens of thousands of illegal students didn't come here by choice, were graduating annually from high school, but remained in limbo.

The law allows students who attended California high school for at least three years and graduated here, including citizens, to pay in-state tuition even if they are not legal residents of the state.

Undocumented AB 540 students in California are barred from all state, school or federal grants or loans. They also must sign an affidavit promising to seek legal status as soon as they can, even though most of the students have no avenue to obtain that status.

Read more: http://www.sacbee.com/2010/04/01/2648006/illegal-immigrants-less-than-1.html#ixzz13t3AXb3G


Haven't read it yet, but this is another entry in what seems to be an answer to the Gioia / New Formalist cry for a New Narrative, this one not in form but in a "slim volume" of "free verse". There are more books than these; this is another facet in that gem -- silicon? carbon? -- that is the project-driven book of poems. In other words, free verse poems which together tell a story is a subset of the poetry project book (rather than a collection) (not a women's epic either), but also an entry into the contest to make poetry an entertainment: here, like watching a drama.

The Forest of Sure Things is a layered sequence of poems set in a remote, historic village at the tip of a peninsula on the Northwest Coast, near where Lewis and Clark encountered the Pacific.
With hypnotic phrasing and imagery along with an innovative approach to chronology, Snyder-Camp tells the story of a grieving couple, then dramatizes the impact of this enigmatic story on her imagination, her artistic practice, and her own new beginnings in married life and parenthood.

"Megan Snyder-Camp's poems seem to emerge from the deep well of our common experiences.... In this book we find the authenticity and care we too often forget we need from poems, inflected with its own version of grace."

-- Carol Ann Davis, judge for the Tupelo Press / Crazyhorse Award

Megan Snyder-Camp grew up in Baltimore and received a B.A. in Creative Writing from Oberlin College and an M.F.A. in Poetry from the University of Washington. She has taught at the University of Washington and the Richard Hugo House in Seattle, where she lives with her family.

The Forest of Sure Things

In this land the children tear their hearts in half.
Let me explain. If ten things are wanted, only ten
can be had. If a stand of birches is found to be made of tin,
the soil around them will bleed with rust. In this land children
study their magazines in broad daylight, and in their books
any soldier who stumbles will not fall. No one will fall,
a gift parents try not to make much of. At every meal
some is set aside. In every garden a patch lies fallow. At parties
there are whispers of illegal cheeses. Camembert, especially,
is said to taste alive. And so the children learn
to make room. To leave some.
Nothing will come, but nothing will go.
To love like this half must rattle in its pit.


as I apply for the broad, it behooves me to look at some of the education-related jargon in the current campaign

even though I've voted, I'm armed with a Meg Whitman education plan

the first thing I'm looking up is "simplify categorical funding"

the first resource I found was an article in the San Diego paper, that says it is a good thing, that there are some current category-funded programs which would be cheaper to administer (overhead costs) and more accountable if lumped in with the basic grants, including meals for needy students, some special ed, and especially class size reduction

class size reduction, which doesn't, apparently, alone improve functioning at grade level for students: is more of a teacher benefit as it stands

cap on charter schools

MY first thought, before research, is that since charter schools have greater accountability requirements, there is quite a hefty failure rate (except for some of the larger charter school COMPANIES' schools, like Kipp). What this could mean is that we are replacing a stable, failing system, but an established institution, with an unstable system which may or may not become successful enough to continue to educate the same child through a grade group (preschool, primary grades, middle school, high school).

Now the research:

higher teacher turnover rate. part of this is probably lack of unionization / voice in management. part of this is probably a truer representation of job / pay / rewards for workers in a corporate / "white collar"/non union environment.

"For one, there is clear evidence that teachers with strong academic backgrounds are most inclined to leave the profession"

“The preponderance of evidence suggests that teachers with higher measured ability have a higher probability of leaving…” (p. 186).

attrition is highest among teachers that are new to the profession.

a question is: is teacher turnover bad? is unionization of k-12 teachers an analog to tenure, and should both systems be dissolved?

it is common for senior faculty to note that a teacher with 10 years experience is far more valuable than a new teacher -- for ability to handle bureaucracy, discipline, and grant getting / special programs, at the very least. what about teachers with degrees in subject areas versus in education or teaching? what about teachers / administrators with graduate degrees (paid a differential) and those without? is there a "path" for teaching k-12 as there is for university (assistant - associate (tenured) - full professor, named chair, foundation or institute head, head of department, chancellor, dean? increasingly senior committee work?

they are saying that during the first five years of employment, teachers increase -- a great deal -- in effectiveness

and that teachers who leave are almost always replaced with less experienced teachers

"These costs include money spent to exit the teacher from the school, recruit and hire a new teacher and/or fill the vacancy with a substitute until a new teacher can be hired, and train the new teacher. In some districts, costs include signing bonuses and school material stipends granted to new teachers."

Well, but the teacher then is receiving more money in the first year or two of teaching -- because the teachers are in high demand -- than in the years when the teacher is most valuable to the institution. Clearly, this portion is a wage and budget for supplies issue. If wages + bonus and supplies are larger year one than year three, there is a lot of motivation to move.

"turnover rates are comparable to private schools" -- other non union schools -- again, where benefits are not likely to continue to improve

"the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act mandates all public schools have a “highly qualified” teacher in every classroom. To be “highly qualified” a teacher must have a full state license or certificate."

"We predict that teachers who attended selective colleges will be at greater risk of leaving the profession because they may have better career options outside of teaching. Similarly, we predict that teachers whose major field of study was not in education will also be at greater risk of leaving, in part because their degree may provide more professional opportunities outside of education."

This is interesting to me, since it seems so very obvious when we are considering the history of teacher education in the U.S. Many of our second - tier institutions are from the Normal school / Teacher's college movement. In some states, the "state university" system is from normal schools and the higher-ranked, main "university" system is meant to compete against the private schools, especially of the east coast, which were, after all, founded as schools to train ministers to teach and preach, so that women (and others not "officially educated") couldn't -- i.e., Harvard -- even in an era when everyone was encouraged to be literate to be able to read the vernacular Bible.

"Normal schools soon started popping up in more and more cities and towns. The first three all opened in the year of 1839 in Massachusetts. The first was Lexington, the second in Barre and the third in Bridgewater.[5]
The next four opened in four different states, with the next normal school opened in Albany, New York in 1845, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1848, New Britain, Connecticut in 1849, and Ypsilanti, Michigan in 1850.[6] Eastern Michigan University, as we know it today, started as a normal school and continues today to have one of the best teacher education programs in the country."

Illinois State, the CSU system...

Jefferson: public schooling separate from religious education
"free public education at the elementary level was available for all American children by the end of the 19th century"

"The first publicly supported secondary school in the United States was the Boston Latin School, founded in 1635. Harvard was the first University in existence at that time. The attendance in secondary schools was very little because the curriculum was specialized and hard. The demand for skilled workers in the middle of the eighteenth century led Benjamin Franklin to start a new kind of secondary school. Thus, the American Academy was established in Philadelphia in 1751. American high schools eventually replaced Latin grammar schools. The rise in American high school attendance was one of the most striking developments in U.S. education during the 20th century. From 1900 to 1996 the percentage of teenagers who graduated from high school increased from about 6 percent to about 85 percent. As the 20th century progressed, most states enacted legislation extending compulsory education laws to the age of 16."

Franklin (U Penn)
accounting, physical education, modern languages, english grammar, logic, ethics, history: speech, civics/poly sci, classics, art history, chronology; geography


"Whereas many poetry collections in the last few years have fully incorporated a single idea as the driving point of the entire collection..."

Because this is true (is "collection" meaningful? were the poems written to theme, or were they collected?) and also because this is increasingly causing anxiety (project poetry -- while "project" has been a fruitful term, practice -- "project poetry" as a term with a negative/cliche aspect is now recognisable by including poems that are necessary to the project but not good as poems, by not generally having an emotional or metaphorical core, by working through exhaustion), here is my review of

Alison Hawthorne Deming
The Monarchs
LSU Press